Causes of Type 2 Diabetes, Symptoms, Diagnose, and Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes Definition

Type 2 Diabetes is the condition in which the blood sugar levels exceed the normal value. The high levels of blood sugar because the body does not use the insulin hormone normally. The hormone insulin itself is a hormone that helps sugar (glucose) get into the body's cells to be converted into energy.
Causes of Type 2 Diabetes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Type 2 diabetes patients can experience a variety of symptoms, some of which are the onset of blackened body parts, hard-to-heal wounds, and blurred vision. However, these symptoms take a long time to appear and are perceived by the sufferer. In fact, this condition is potentially unnoticed until complications occur.

Therefore, it would be better if the handling was done immediately. In addition to relieving symptoms that arise, good treatment can also prevent complications of type 2 diabetes, such as:
  • Heart disease
  • Skin disorders
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Hearing Loss

Some of the methods used to handle type 2 diabetes include:
  • Implementing Healthy Lifestyles
  • Drug Administration
  • Insulin therapy
  • Operating

Symptoms of type 2 Diabetes

The following are some of the symptoms that type 2 diabetics can experience:
  • Easy thirst.
  • Frequent urination, especially nighttime.
  • Often feel hungry.
  • The body feels tired.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Weight loss.
  • Hard to heal when having wounds.
  • Some parts of the skin are blackened.
Basically, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes and type 2 have some similarities. However, type 2 diabetes symptoms tend to take longer time to arise. In fact, patients with type 2 diabetes may not feel symptoms until complications occur. Therefore, it is better to do regular blood glucose check-ups, especially if they have a high level of risk.

Causes of type 2 Diabetes

The pancreas produces an insulin hormone that is tasked to help cells in the body change the substance of sugar (glucose), obtained from food or produced liver, into energy. Type 2 Diabetes occurs when cells of the body cannot use insulin as it should.

The cause of disruption in the body cells is not known for sure. However, it is suspected that genes become one of the trigger factors. The risk of a person experiencing the disease also increases when it is 45 years old or older and has family members who are also diabetics.

In addition to genes, type 2 diabetes is also thought to be triggered by patient life conditions and patterns. Some suspected conditions of risk of raising type 2 diabetes are:
  • Prediabetes.
  • Disorders of the heart and blood vessels.
  • Hypertension.
  • Good cholesterol levels (HDL) are
  • High triglycerides.
  • Obesity.
  • Gestational diabetes, which is diabetes that occurs during pregnancy.
  • PcPros
  • acanthosis
In addition to the above conditions, lifestyle also affects the risk of type 2 diabetes. Some lifestyles that may increase a person's risk of experiencing this disease are:
  • Lack of exercise.
  • Smoking.
  • Frequent stress.
  • Lack of rest.

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnose

In diagnosing type 2 diabetes, doctors generally perform a series of blood sugar tests. Blood sugar tests can also differ in each patient, including: 
  • HbA1C. This test is done to check the average blood sugar level in the period of 2-3 months.
  • Fasting blood sugar test. This test aims to check blood sugar levels in the case of an empty stomach. The patient will be asked for a fasting period of 8 hours.
  • Blood sugar tolerance test. After the patient is taken fasting blood sugar, the patient will be asked to drink a special sugar and re-conduct blood sugar examinations after 2 hours of drinking a sugar solution.
  • Blood sugar test. This test aims to check the blood sugar level at an unspecified time.
To ensure the results, at least doctors use 2 types of blood tests. Doctors can also use other tests in the form of urine tests, blood cholesterol levels, and liver, kidney, and thyroid functions.

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

There are several methods that can be used to handle type 2 diabetes. The doctor will determine the appropriate method and according to the patient's condition.

Diet and Exercise

This method needs to be done to deal with diabetes, including type 2. In addition to lowering the blood sugar levels, applying a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise and eating nutritious foods can also reduce the risk of disease complications.

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The doctor will advise the patient to consume foods that are rich in fiber and low in fat. Consult a doctor about the kind of food that is good for consumption, and the type of exercise and its frequency is recommended. The conditions of diet and exercise in each person may differ according to the condition of the body.

Drug Administration

The doctor may also prescribe medication to type 2 diabetes patients when the treatment by applying a healthy lifestyle is not quite effective. Some medications that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes include:
  • Metformin, to reduce the production of sugar on the liver.
  • Meglitinide and sulfonylurea, to stimulate pancreatic work to produce more insulin. An example of the drug meglitinide is nateglinide, and an example of a sulfonylurea drug is glibenclamide.
  • DPP-4, to increase the production of insulin and reduce the production of sugar by the liver. An example of this drug is sitagliptin.
  • GLP-1 receptor agonist. The drug can slow down the digestion process of food, especially those containing sugar while lowering sugar levels in the blood. For example Exenatide.
  • SGLT2 inhibitors. This medication works by affecting the kidneys to remove more sugar. For example Dapagliflozin.
Before using the drug, consult the doctor first, in order to be prescribed the appropriate types and dosages of the drug. Types and dosages that are not suitable for large potential cause side effects.

In addition to medications, additional insulin can be administered by the doctor by injected. This therapy can be used when other treatments are not effective. Insulin is available in various types, and each of them works in different ways. Discuss with the doctor about the types of injectable insulin.

Bariatric surgery

Excess weight becomes one of the factors that are suspected of causing type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery serves to lose weight by changing the form of the digestive tract so that many foods consumed can be restricted and the nutrients that are absorbed can be reduced.

Complications of type 2 Diabetes

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are difficult to detect, even the occurrence of complications. Some of the complications that type 2 diabetic patients can experience include:
  • Heart disease and blood vessels, such as heart attack, and stroke.
  • Nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy). This condition often occurs in the legs, with symptoms appearing to be numbness to pain. In men, damage to the nerves is also related to the disruption of sexual function.
  • Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy). Severe damage can lead to renal failure.
  • Eye damage (diabetic retinopathy). The damage to the retinal veins could potentially cause visual impairment.
  • Hearing loss.
  • Skin disorders, such as more easily infected with bacterial or viral infections.
  • Alzheimer's disease.

Type 2 Diabetes Prevention

The risk of type 2 diabetes can be reduced by applying a healthy lifestyle. In addition to lowering the risk, implementing a healthy lifestyle can also prevent complications of type 2 diabetes.

Some of the efforts that can be done include:
  • Eating nutritious food is balanced. Choose foods that are high in fiber and low in fat and calories.
  • Routine exercise. Do a 30-minute workout every day, like cycling or swimming.
  • Keep weight. Maintain ideal body weight according to body mass index (BMI).

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