Definition Malaria - Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Definition Malaria - Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment


Malaria is an infectious disease that spreads through mosquito bites. Malaria sufferers will complain of fever and chill symptoms.

Although it is easily transmitted through mosquito bites, malaria can heal in total when handled appropriately. But if not treated, this disease can be fatal from causing severe anemia, kidney failure, to death.

Malaria Symptoms                      

Symptoms of malaria arise at least 10-15 days after mosquito bit. The emergence of symptoms through three phases for 6-12 hours, namely shivering, fever and headaches, then excrete a lot of sweat and weakness before the body temperature back to normal. The stages of malaria symptoms can occur following a particular cycle, which is 3 days (tertiary) or 4 days (Quaranta).

The symptoms of malaria sufferers are:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headaches
  • Sweating a lot
  • Limp
  • Analgesic Legal
  • Symptoms of anemia or less blood
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea and Bloody CHAPTER

The attack on malaria symptoms is often described through three phases for 6-12 hours, beginning with shivering, then developing into fever and headache, then the sufferer will sweat a lot and weakness until the body temperature is back to normal.

The attack of the symptoms of malaria may arise with a particular cycle, which is to appear 3 days (malaria in the same) or 4 days (malaria Quaranta).

When to go to the doctor?

Before traveling to areas of many cases of malaria, should consult a physician. The doctor may provide medication that is taken to prevent malaria.

If you live or are traveling to an area that many cases of malaria and fever, let alone a patterned fever every 3-4 days, immediately consult a doctor.

Causes of Malaria

Humans can be exposed to malaria after being bitten by mosquitoes that have malaria parasites in the mosquito body. The mosquito bite causes the parasite to enter the human body. These parasites will settle in the liver organs before they are ready to attack red blood cells.

Parasitic malaria is named Plasmodium. Plasmodium types vary and will have an effect on the symptoms caused and treatment.

Malaria is caused by a Plasmodium parasite propagated by a mosquito bite Anopheles females. After the mosquito bite, the parasite enters the body and occupies the liver organ, where the parasite can grow and multiply.

When the parasite grows and becomes mature, the parasite goes from the liver organ and destroys the red blood cells. The damage to red blood cells is what causes the symptoms of anemia in patients.

In addition to the mosquito bites, the spread of malaria parasites may also occur due to the blood exposure to malaria sufferers. Some conditions that may cause a person to be exposed to malaria are:

  • Infected fetus from his mother
  • Receiving blood transfusions
  • Sharing the use of a syringe
  • Receiving organ donors

The severity of symptoms of malaria varies by person. Residents living in areas with many cases of malaria have half the immunity of the disease, so the symptoms will not be too severe.

However, this half-immunity can be lost once a person moves to an area where malaria doesn't happen often. People who do not have half-immunity may experience more severe malaria symptoms.

Symptoms of malaria can also generally be severe and can cause complications when occurring at:

  • Toddler
  • Elderly
  • Pregnant women and the fetus

Types of Malaria

There are many types of malaria differentiated by the type of Plasmodium parasites infecting. However, only five types of Plasmodium infect humans, namely:

Falciparum Malaria
Conceded by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. This type of malaria is most dangerous because it causes severe malaria accompanied by complications. Most cases of death due to malaria are associated with this type of malaria.

Vivax Malaria
Vivax Plasmodium parasites that cause this vivax malaria can persist in an inactive state of the liver organ for several months or years. Thus, this type of malaria can relapse when active parasite returns.

Malaria Ovale
This type is due to the Plasmodium ovale parasite and the symptoms caused are not severe, and sometimes improved without treatment.

Malaria Malaria
This new type of Malaria causes symptoms after having long been infected with the Plasmodium malaria parasite. Therefore, patients with this type of malaria will experience chronic infections and also associated with impaired renal organ function.

Knowles Malaria
Similar to the falciparum malaria, malaria due to Plasmodium Knowles may also develop rapidly becomes severe, although the symptoms are initially mild.

Malaria Diagnose

When the patient comes to treatment with malaria symptoms, the doctor will inquire about the symptoms and perform a physical examination. The doctor will also ask if the patient lives in areas of many cases of malaria, or recently traveled to the area.

To determine if a patient is infected with malaria infection, the doctor will perform a blood test called the Malaria Rapid Diagnostic test (RDT malaria). RDT malaria aims to detect proteins (antigen) which can be a sign of the existence of malaria parasites. The results can be known within a few minutes.

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To ensure malaria, not enough with an RDT examination only. There is also a blood test under the microscope, to see the presence of parasites and distinguish types of malaria. Blood samples can be taken more than once and taken when the complaint arises.

The doctor may also perform other blood tests, such as liver function tests or kidney function, to determine if malaria causes complications to other organs.

Malaria Treatment

Malaria should be promptly addressed to prevent the risk of harmful complications. Treatment of malaria can be done by administering antimalaria medication. These drugs need to be adapted to the type of parasitic cause of malaria, severity, or a history of geographic areas that have been inhabited by sufferers.

Treatment of malaria is done by administering antimalarials medication to kill parasites. The type and period of drug Administration depend on the type of parasitic attack, the severity of symptoms, and the condition of the patient.

To deal with malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the World Health Organization (WHO) makes a combination regimen of drugs called Artemisinin-based Combination therapies (ACT). The combination of these drugs are:

  • Combination of medicine Artemether and Lumefantrine
  • The combination of artesunate and amodiaquine
  • Combination Dihydroartemisinin and Piperaquine
  • Combinations of artesunate, sulfadoxine, and Pyrimethamine

This drug is administered for at least 3 days in adults as well as children. While for pregnant women in the first trimester, then the drug given is a quinine pill plus clindamycin for 7 days.

For the treatment of malaria due to the vivax Plasmodium infection, can be administered a combination of drug ACT or chloroquine drugs. In addition, in order to prevent the recurrence of this type of malaria, doctors can add a primaquine drug.

For severe malaria, the sufferer will be hospitalized and administered by the drug through injections, at least during the first 24 hours. Furthermore, the drug can be changed to tablets.

Malaria Complications

Some serious complications caused by malaria, among them severe anemia, hypoglycemia, brain damage and many organs fail to function. These complications can be fatal and are more susceptible to infants and the elderly.

There are several complications that can occur in malaria sufferers, among others:

1. Severe Anemia

This complication occurs due to the number of red blood cells that are destroyed or damaged (hemolysis) due to malaria parasites.

2. Brain Malaria

This complication occurs when the blood cells are filled with parasites, thereby inhibiting small blood vessels in the brain. Consequently, the brain becomes swollen or damaged. The symptoms are seizures and coma.

3. Malfunction of organ body

There are several organs that can be interrupted because of malaria parasites, between the kidney, liver, or spleen. These conditions may harm the sufferer's life.

4. Respiratory disorders

This complication occurs when the fluid accumulates in the lungs (pulmonary edema), making the sufferer difficult to breathe.

5. Hypoglycemia

Severe Malaria can lead to hypoglycemia or low blood sugar levels. Very low blood sugar can result in coma or even death.

Malaria Prevention

Although there have been no vaccinations to prevent malaria, doctors can prescribe antimalarials medication as a precaution if one plans to travel or stay in an area where many cases of Malaria. In addition, prevention can be done by avoiding mosquito bites by attaching a mosquito net to the bed, using long-sleeved clothing and trousers, and using a cream or Mosquito Repellent spray.

Avoiding mosquito bites is the best way to prevent malaria parasitic infections. The trick is with:

  • Covering the skin with long pants and long-sleeved clothes
  • Sleeping on a new mattress
  • Wear a protective cream of mosquito bites

If you want to travel to areas that many cases of malaria, your doctor can give you antimalaria medications, such as chloroquine.

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